Martensitic stainless steels can be high- or low-carbon steels built around the composition of iron, 12% up to 17% chromium, carbon from 0.10% (Type 410) up to 1.2% (Type 440C). Up to about 0.4%C they are used mostly for their mechanical properties ( pumps, valves, shafts). Above, 0.4% they are used mostly for their wear resistance (cutlery surgical blades, plastic injection molds, nozzles). They may contain some Ni (Type 431) which allows a higher Cr and/or Mo content, thereby improving corrosion resistance and as the Carbon content is also lower, the toughness is improved. Grade EN 1.4313 (CA6NM) with a low C, 13%Cr and 4%Ni offers good mechanical properties, good castability, good weldability and good resistance to cavitation. It is used for nearly all the hydroelectric turbines in the world (including those of the huge "Three gorges " dam in China).
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